My Micro Photography Gallery

Butterfly Wings
Armenia, 12 Apr 2019
Here is a closeup of the wing of a Sunset Moth, taken using my Mitutoyo 10X objective. 
 
I could see making prints of mosaics or collages of say, these scales from half a dozen or a dozen different subjects.  Printed large in a grid on canvas.  Or say, eyes (human, mammal, insect).

Crystals
Armenia, 6 Apr 2019
Crystals can be grown on a microscope slide and then photographed using polarizing filters.  There is an effect called Birefringence that results in amazing patterns in some materials.
 
Size:
Or click on an image to enlarge it
Lake Placid, 2 Jun - 4 Jul, 2019
Below are some images I have made.  Most of these were taken at 20X magnification and are approx. 2 mm across.  The rest were at 10X are approx. 4 mm across.  Please click on an image to enlarge it (then the browser's back button to return) or click on the Size options to the left to resize all the images.  The first one on the left is presently my favorite.
Hippuric Acid
0021
0022
0023
0024
0039
0046
0041
0042
0047
0048
0040
0043
0044
0045
Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C)
0001
0002
0003
0004
0069
0070
0071
0072
Saccharine
0005
0006
0007
0008
GABA (gamma-Aminobutyric acid, an amino acid)
0009
0010
0011
0012
DHEA (Dehydroepiandrosterone)
0013
0014
0015
0016
Potassium Chlorate
0017
0018
0019
0020
Aspirin
0025
0026
0027
0028
Pregnenolone
0029
0030
0031
0032
Caffeine
0033
0034
0035
0036
Resorcinol
0037
0038
Maleic and Salicylic Acid
0049
0050
0051
Adipic Acid
0053
0054
0055
0056
Niacin
0057
0058
0059
0060
Thioacetamide
0061
0062
Ethylparaben
0063
0064
0065
0066
0067
0068
Below is a sampling from Robert Berdan, Loes Modderman and others.  None of the following photos are mine.
Do you use saturate solutions or less? Which concentration do you use (if is not a secret)? Deionized water?
Rodolfo, no secret. Plain tap water. and no, not saturated, just a little bit, half a teaspoon at most of the pure chemical dissolved in about 20ml. I never weigh or measure anything, I just make a solution and see what happens. Saturated solutions tend to become sticky before they crystallise. With my method they crystallize quickly most of the time when heated a bit, sometimes in seconds, depending on the chemical.
heating? I always thought that heat is the enemy of cristalization ...
Benzoic acid and Salicylspiritus, both in alcohol, mixed on the slide. Pol+ ret
sodioglutamate
Paracetamol with a drop of ISOdrink, mixed on the slide, 20x objective, pol+ret
Ammonium Tartrate and Acetic Acid
Inositol, water solution
Resorcinol and Gluconic acid, alcohol and water slution, mixed on the slide, pol+ retarder
Callus remover
Stevia and Saccharine, pol+ret, water solution
Urea and Gluconic acid, Water solution, pol+ret
Paracetamol, pol + ret, water solution
Salicylic Acid / hydromassage
layers of Amm sulphate and Na thiosulphate in water, pol+ret
Hydroquinone and sugar, alcohol solution, pol+ret
Epsom salt, water solution, pol+ret
Ammonium Sulphate
Urea and lactose
Ammonium Tartrate
Hydroquinone, Pol+ret, alcohol solution
Succinic acid. alcohol solution, pol+ret
Gluconic acid and Thiocarbamide, water solution, pol+ret, 150x
Bicarbonate
Rywanol
tyrminiumchlorid
Vanille
paracetamol/nicotinamide
A chemical called NAC, water solution, pol+ret
Paracetamol, pol + ret, water solution
a series of Urea and Glycine. The flowers in the tapestry come second, after the longer crystals have settled. Pol+ret, water solution, 250x
Chloramphenicol, alcohol solution, pol+ret, 150x
Acetylsalicylic acid aka Aspirin, Pol + different retarders, pure powder dissolved in alcohol
ditto
ditto
ditto
ditto
Vanilla
Callus remover
Hydroquinone crystals x 200
Hydroquinone x 200
Hydroquinone crystals x250
Silver Nitrate, 200X pol+ret
Silver Nitrate 200X pol + ret
ditto
ditto
Resorcinol and an energy drink, pol+ret, water solution
Hydroquinone crystals x250, x100 pol only
ditto
Pocket Watch Mechanism
Fenylsalicylaat and Fenylthioreum, alcohol solution
Vanilla extract
Lactic acid and sweetener (Hermesetas), water solution, heated and cooled, pol+ret
D-Aspartic acid and Glycin, water solution, pol+ret
Fenylthioreum in alcohol, with yellow retarder and pol
paracetamol and stevia sweetener, Pol+ret, alcohol and water solution mixed on the slide
Saccharin and Dextrin mixed on the slide, from water solution, pol+ret
Sorbic acid and Salicylic acid, mixed on slide, from alcohol solution
Pharmacy
Pharmacy
sweeteners and Thiocarbamide, pol+rets, 250x
ditto
ditto
Abstract of Saccharin and Dextrin, pol+ret, dissolved in water
Urea, Xylitol and L-glutamine
L-Glutamin acid, from water solution
Ammonium thiosulphate and Na thiosulphate, dissolved in water, pol+ret
a thin section of a brazilian agate under the polarizing microscope. width c. 2 mm
Fertilizer, in water solution, pol+ret
Ascorbic acid
Graphitic Grannulite from Kerala (India), Black is graphite, colorful are feldspars. width 5,7 mm
Fertilizer
Fertilizer
Magnesium sulphate and a water purification chemical. Pol+ret
Callus remover
Benzoëzuur Acid / Salicylic Acid
Amino acids in Isopropyl alcohol, pol/ret. 6 frame panorama of 10 images in a stack
Bath salt containing several ingredients. It's remarkable that the dendrites closely resemble the non-polarizing crystals of Na bicarbonate
4-hydrobenzoic acid propyl ester
a health product based on a sweetener, water solution, pol + retarders
levodopum/paracetamol
Pollen of a hibiscus
Benzoëzuur/salicylzuur
Copper Sulphate Alcohol Water Solution
Daphnia sp.
Inositol and Thiocarbamide in water solution, pol + ret
Pollen of a hibiscus
Pollen of a hibiscus
Pollen of a hibiscus
Pollen of a hibiscus
Inositol, water solution, pol+ret
Potassium carbonate, water solution, pol+ret
Copper Sulphate Alcohol Water Solution
Pollen of a hibiscus
Pollen of a hibiscus
fertilizer, water solution, pol + retarders
Decalcifier and soya sauce
Amino acids in Isopropyl alcohol, pol/ret. 6 frame panorama of 10 images in a stack.
Copper Sulphate
ditto
ditto
fertilizer, water solution, pol+ several retarders. 10x objective, Olympus BH-2
fertilizer
fertilizer
fertilizer
fertilizer
Malic acid and DL Malic acid, colored retarder and pol. Water solution
Caustic soda and a photo chemical
efedrine/paracetamol
paracetamol, pure chemical, water solution, pol+ret
Amino acid jellyfish on a slide this morning. Panorama with stacked images/ pol. and ret.
Amino acid. Panorama with stacked images/ pol. and ret.
Callus remover, pol+ret
Thiocarbamide, mostly, from water solution, pol and another retarder
An acid
Fertilizer from agricultural grains
ditto
Magnesiumnitraat
hydroquinone, from alcohol solution, 150x
n/a
Magnesium sulphate, pol + several ret, water solution. 250x
Hydroquinone with a drop of one other component, pol+ret, alcohol and water solution, 250x
Vitamin C
Hexachlorophenum
Fertilizer, Water solution , pol+ret, 250x
threo-2 amino nitrophenyl propane
levodopum/paracetamol
hydrochinon
Threo-2-amino
Paracetamol + sweetener, alcohol and water solution, Pol + ret , 100x
ascorbic acid
Lactic acid and a sweetener, water solution, pol+ret, 250x
Magnesiumsulphate, water solution
Paracetomol, x100
Menthol, x100
Menthol x80
Menthol, x150
ditto
Menthol crystals on edge. x100
Vitamin C, water solution
Magnesium sulphate, pol and yellow colored retarder combined with mica, water solution, 10x
callus remover, aceton, pol+ret, 10x
Progesteron, water solution, pol+ret
Ascorbic acid
testosteron propinate
5.5 dimethyl
I took out a two days old slide of Magnesium sulphate. When heated, a solution always bursts in some places. Those shards are blanco, but after a day or so they start showing crystals. So I took pictures of colorful shards, with a 4x and 10x objective.
ditto
ditto
ditto
ditto
ditto
ditto
Saccharine and two other chemicals from a water solution, pol+ret's
several sugars, pol+ mica and plastic ret's, water solution, 10x
5,5 dimethyl
Ascorbic acid, Just pol, no retarder. Water solution, mixed on the slide with a drop of sweetener
Nicotinamide/paracetamol
4-hydrobenzoïc acid
nicotinamide/paracetamol
Boric acid and Winestone (no, not tartaric acid), pol+ret
nicotinamide/paracetamol
Inositol and Urea, water solution mixed on the slide.
4-hydrobenzoïc acid propyl ester
Ncotinamide
L-Asparagine, forming round units in the overall pattern. Water solution, pol + ret, heated and cooled several times
Paracetamol and Menthol, alcohol solution
Boric acid and a sweetener. Sweeteners are very rewarding, and all different. I mostly use them in combinations, and always from a water solution. Polarisatie, 10x objective
Thiocarbamide and Boric acid , pol + ret, 10x objective, water solution, mixed on the slide
Several amino acids in water pol/ret pan of 6 stacked images
Paracetamol, always interesting. Pure chemical, not a pill. Alcohol solution, pol+ret's
bemegride
panthotenic
Menthol x150
Urea , saccharin and another sweetener, giving the illusion of depth. Water solution, pol+ret
ditto
Epsom salt. Water solution, pol+ret
Potassium hydroxyde, pol+ret, water solution
a mixture of two sweeteners in water solution, pol+ret
Hydroquinone and a sweetener. Alcohol and water solution, 250x, pol+ret
Paracetamol and a sweetener, water solution, mixed on the slide, heated and cooled, pol+ret, 10x
Menthol x100
Menthol x250
Inositol, pol+ret, water solution, 250x
paracetamol and a sweetener, pol+ret, alcohol solution, after heating and cooling
Nickelsulfate, water
Nickelsulfate, water solution, pol+ ret, 10x
dopamine hydrochloridum
fertilizer, pol + ret, water solution, 10x
amino acid combination. I'm still working on this one in Photoshop. I started with a panorama of six stacked images, then stacked them in Zerene stacker, then stiched them in Lightroom.
several sweeteners
paracetamol, pure chemical, pol+ret, water solution
Polystyrene deformed under polarized light
Menthol crystals x 150
Menthol crystals x 150
Maldives acid
Urea and mostly Boric acid in alcohol
Urea and mostly Boric acid in alcohol
Urea and mostly Boric acid in alcohol
Urea and mostly Boric acid in alcohol
paracetamol
ninhydrin/paracetamol
paracetamol
PARACETAMOL
Paracetamol with Boric acid, pol+ ret, alcohol and water solution
components of any callus remover, but with a less striking effect. So the manufacturers of callus medicins use a secret ingredient they don't tell, or I am doing something wrong. Nevertheless, I like this one. Pol + retarders, 250x, water and alcohol solution
kaliumwaterstofphatalaat
callus remover, pol+ret, aceton added
Inositol and DMAE, water solution
Thiocarbamide and a sweetener, pol+ret, water solution
Inositol with 2 others, The flowers appeared gradually. pol+ret, 250x, water solution
Benzotriazole
Inositol with 2 others, The flowers appeared gradually. pol+ret, 250x, water solution
Inositol with 2 others, The flowers appeared gradually. pol+ret, 250x, water solution
Paracetamol and Hydroquinone. Alcohol solution. pol+ret
nicotinamide
Benzenetriol
paracetamol and sweetener, pol+ret
Resorcinol and Malic acid, 250x, pol+ret
Pol+ret, water solution, 250x
Magnesium sulphate, pol+ret, 250x, from water solution
Testosteron propinate
callus remover thinned with aceton, pol + ret
testosteron propinate
paracetamol and sweetener, pol+ret
Menthol. pol+ret, 10x objective
Sodium thiosulphate
Testosteron propinate
several sweeteners, pol+ret, 250x, water solution
Menthol x120
Boric acid and sweetener, DF, pol+ret
Vanille/paracetamol
Stearineacid methylester
Paracetomol x100
Atropine
hydrochinon/paracetamol
dexamethason/paracetamol1
K carbonate and a few additions, pol+ret, water solution, evaporated after being heated and cooled
TRIS, among others, pol+ret
Some household- and photochemicals. Difficult to get them sharp without stacking. 10x objective, water solution, pol+ret
Aether
Ninhydrin/paracetamol
benzotriazole
several acids, pol+ret, 200x
paracetamol/menthol
DMSO with Thiocarbamide, Pol+Ret, 10x objective, Olympus BH2
a mixture of Taurine and Glutamine, pol +ret, 10x objective, water solution
several acids
Ephedrine / imiprazimi
mainly Urea and Glutamine. Pol+ret, alcohol and water solution
Callus remover and Menthol, pol+ret , Alcohol solution
noxacorn/ paracetamol
noxacorn/paracetamol
noxacorn/paracetamol
several acids, pol+ret, water solution
Urea and Salicylic acid
Resorcinol, pol+ret, alcohol solution,10x
noxacorn/paracetamol
Hydroquinone and Glycin, pol + ret, alcohol and water solution, heated
lactic acid and acetylsalicylic acid, alcohol, 10x objective, Pol
Copper sulphate, pol+ret, water solution, 10x objective
decalcifier, water solution, pol+ret
Urea and Glycin, water solution, pol+ret
callus remover recrystallized several times in aceton
Ureum, Salicylic acid and Lactic acid, water and alcohol, 4x objective, pol+ret
maleinic acid and a sweetener, in water solution
A sweetener, water solution, 10x objective, pol+ret
"Maleic acid and dextrine, pol+ret, 10x objective, Olympus BH-2 and Olympus OM D-E-M5 markII camera body with photo objective 10x in the camera adapter tube. So the magnification is at least 100x."
urea and tartaric acid, pol, no retarder, 10x objective, water and alcohol solution
Trimethyl and TRIS, water solution
Menthol, melted, with addition to counteract evaporation.Pol + ret, 10x objective
Caustic Soda and industrial salt, water solution, pol+ret
ditto
ditto
fertiliser and Tartaric acid, 20x objective, pol
guanidine
"Experimented with several kinds of artificial sweeteners today, which gave unexpected results, and disappointments too. Sometimes the producer does something to his product without consideration for crystalmakers. But this one was fine, nice patterns. Some tablets in water."
malonzuur
Maleic acid and TRIS, pol+ret , water and alcohol solution, 10x
 (Lots) More ...
2-4 dichloro A
Trimethyl and TRIS, water solution
Paracetamol, Alcohol, pol+ret
Experiment with Rheinberg illumination. Saccharine and Stevia, water solution
Hydroquinone and a sweetener, alcohol + water, pol+ret, 4x
Magnesium sulfate, from water solution, pol+ret
imiprazimi
atelolum
Thiocarbamide and a fertilizer, DF, converted to monochrome. Water solution, 10x objective
ditto
ditto
Epsom salt, pol+ret, water solution, 10x objective
Paracetamol and Saccharine in water solution, pol+ret
some amino acids from a fitness supplier
thiocarbamide and trimethyl, water solution, 10x
Callus remover, acetone, 10x
TRIS, water solution, pol+ret
Benzoic acid, Salicylspiritus and Tartaric acid
callus remover in aceton. 10x objective
callus remover in aceton, pol+ret
Urea, Glycine and one other, water solution, 10x objective
Magn sulphate, water solution
Niacinamide (Vit B3) and L-Asparagine, water solution. Pol+ret, 10x objective
Vit C and Na carbonate
Citric Acid
Src
Urea
Src
Urea,coffee?,water
Src
Niacinamide (Vit B3)
Hydroquinone,alcohol
Src
Resorcinol
Src
Ascorbic acid,water
Src
Tartaric acid
Aspirin
Resorcinol, alcohol
Ureum, water
Urea, water
Magnesium sulphate
Paracetamol
Hydroquinone+an addition
Tartaric acid and Saccharine
Urea, Paracetamol
Src
Aspirin and Paracetamol under polarized and oblique lighting
Src
Tartaric acid, Dextrin
Na tetraboraat and Glycine
Paracetamol
Paracetamol
Paracetamol
Paracetamol, betamethason
Paracetamol, betamethason
Aqueous resorcinol
Src
Betamethason, paracetamol
Src
Resorcinol
Urea + an acid
Paracetamol + addition, alcohol
Urea + addition, water
N/A
Betamethason/paracetamol A
Barnsteenzuur
Copper Sulfate
Epsom salt
Src
Epsom salt
Epsom salt
Urea
Copper sulphate, in gel
Ammonium di hydrogenfosphate
NAS
Tartaric acid
Salicillic acid and Propylhydroxybenzoate from alcohol solution
Urea and citric acid
Urea + citric acid, water solution
Na thiosulfate, water solution
Urea
Glycine
Progesteron
Tartaric acid after some time
Propylhydroxybenzoate and paracetamol
Thiocarbamide and three others, water solution
Malic acid and softener
Boric acid, mainly
Hydroquinone
Paracetamol, Alcohol solution
Progesteron
Resorcinol M
Hydroquinone and 2 other components
Resorcinol A
Propylhydroxybenzoate
Imidiazole
Malic Acid and Ibuprofen
Atropine
Penylephrini hydr
Efedzine / Hydroquinone
Tartaric acid and menthol
Hydroquinone and Urea
Resorcinol
Paracetamol
Paracetamol and wodka
Boric acid, Sacchanrie and at least 2 others, from water solution
4-hydrobenzoic B 2
TRIS and Glaubersalt, mainly
Oxalic acid
Tartaric acid, in water
kaliumwaterstofphatalaat A
kaliumwaterstofphatalaat
TRIS
Thiocarbamide and Rochellesalt
Mainly Acetylsalicylic acid
Resorcinol and Oxalic acid
Thiocarbamide and an industrial salt
Epsom
Recorcinol, alcohol solution
Resorcinol
"Snus is a traditional form of smokeless tobacco in Sweden. Images are an airdried water extract of a typical bergamot-flavored snus (pouch soaked in water for a few minutes). I am guessing the crystals are mainly salt. Polarized light (no retarder). Image is a stitch of 16 images. 4X objective."
"BIG crystal growth (if that's what it is on 1mm²) from Hydroquinone and a soft drink. Fascinating because they never touch other groups of similar crystals, but intrusions of a different kind are added without a problem. For people who want to learn something about crystallization !"
"The proportion of the two solutes is critical to achieving these forms - I generally start from a solution of 4:1 (v/v) of beta-alanine to l-glutamine and vary concentrations until I get something that works. Ensure that your slides are extremely clean - if they are even slightly hydrophobic the results are generally unusable."
Urea and an addition, water solution, 150x
Thiocarbamide and Rochellesalt
Hydroquinone, alcohol solution
p-hydroxyphenethyl alcohol
4-hydrobenzoic acid G
8-CHINLINOLSULFAAT
8-CHINLINOLSULFAAT
Omeprazole
3/4 hyldroxy phenyl G
Urea, Gluconic acid and an addition
Ijzermagnesiumnitraat
Resorcinol and vitamin drink
Boric acid, Sacchanrie and at least 2 others, water solution
From a garden fertilizer
Diclofenac, water solution
TRIS in water solution
Oxalic acid with resorcinol
TRIS, water solution
Resorcinol. water solution
Pyridoxin and Betaine
3/4 hyldroxy phenyl
Resorcinol, alcohol solution
Oxalic acid and an energy drink
Coffeine and Saccharine, water solution
Urea and gluconic acid
Saccharine and Dextrin, in water solution
Succinic acid and Gluconic acid, water solution
Testosteron Propinate C
Acetamide
Urea and others, water solution
Tartaric acid
From several acids
Urea
Gallic acid and Hippuric acid, water solution
A callus remover
Saccharine and Dextrin, in water solution
Resorcinol, thiocarbamide and a drink, water solution
Hydrochinon in stripes, after a drop of drink, alcohol solution
4-aminobenzoëacid
Nicotinezuur A
Na hydroxide in a special mixture, water solution
Guanidine HCL
n/a
Citric and Ascorbic Acid
Citric and Ascorbic Acid
Thiocarbamide and another component
A sheet of gelatin, stereo, 20x, multicolor filter
DL Tropiczuur A
From several acids
"Extract of white snus. White snus is based on the traditional Swedish oral tobacco product but instead of containing tobacco, it contains a gum base to which nicotine and flavours have been added (mint flavour in this case). I took one sachet of snus and allowed it to steep in a 50:50 mix of water and alcohol for 10 minutes I then filtered the liquid through kitchen towel before leaving to airdry on a slide for a week. Images are taken using x4 objective and simple polarized light (no retarder). Slide shown as well for reference."
Malic Acid + sugar
Tartaric acid, with and without retarder
3/4 hyldroxy phenyl
Benzotriazole
3/4 hyldroxy phenyl
Urea and Boric acid
Nicotinamide
Paracetamol and Salicylic acid
A "special concoction", water solution
Hydroquinon and other components, Alcohol
Resorcinol
Hydroquinone with an addition to straighten them out, alcohol and water
Hydroquinone, mostly
Saccharine, water solution
Nicotinamide
Nicotinamide A
Tartaric acid
Fertilizer, water solution
Malic Acid + sugar
Malic acid, from water solution
KA-Chloraat
"Copper sulphate, taken 5 seconds after each other. First the small crystals appear, and then a wave takes over in a second. In the meantime the crystals keep growing, as you can see in the right corner. This is typical for this chemical."
Magnesiumchloride
4-hydrobenzoic acid
Sulpher
Sulfur
Hydrochinon and glycine, alcohol solution
Progesteron, water solution
magnesium sulphate and several others
Sweeteners and Glycine
Magn sulphate, water solution
Paracetamol/vanille B
Vanilla b
Resorcinol AK
Hydroxy B
Hydroquinone and Glycine
Vanille/paracetamol D
Vitamine C/Salicylzuur
Vanille/paracetamol
Magnesiumchloride
Creatine and Na thiosulphate
Hydroquinone D
Benzotriazole
Magnesium sulphate, water solution
Antron
Bemegride
Ammonium Sulphate
Gluconic acid, water solution
p-hydroxyphenethyl A
Boric acid and another acid
Crystals that would need stacking. Combination of three colorful chemicals in water solution, 150x
Hydroquinone and Thiocarbamide
Magnesium sulphate, water solution
Hydroquinone and Thiocarbamide
Resorcinol, alcohol, 150x
Na-methoxyde
Na-methoxyde
Na-methoxyde F
Na-methoxyde C
Urea and Boric acid, water solution, 150x pol+ret
Amm thiosulphate and Na thiosulphate, water solution
Resorcinol and Tartaric acid, alcohol solution, 150x
Boric acid and Thiocarbamide
Callus remover liquid
A mixture of sugars, water solution
Boric acid and Urea, millions of little crystals popping up. Water solution
Urea and Boric acid, water solution. Less them 1mm²
Urea and some acids
Thiocarbamide and Ascorbic acid, water solution, pol+ ret , 150x
Na-methoxyde C
D-threo-2-amino
Pyrocatechine
Boric acid and Thiocarbamide, water solution, 150x
Resorcinol and Tartaric acid, alcohol solution, 150x
D-threo-2-amino.B
Gluconic acid
methoxyphenyl
Several kinds of fertilizer, water solution
D-threo.amino-1 A
Several acids
Malonic
Hydroquinone, Glycine and wodka
Oxalic acid pattern, alcohol
One of 20 years ago, from Urea , water solution
Resorcinol, alcohol solution, pol+ret, 100x
References:
   - How to Photograph the Magical Microscopic World – Photomicroscopy
   - The Art & Science of Photomicrography with Polarized Light, Dr. Robert Berdan, June 22, 2017
   - Crystals Photographed with Polarization Microscopy: Water, Beer, Caffeine, Vitamins, Amino Acids and Human Tears, Dr. Robert Berdan, March 17, 2019
   - Video: DIY polarized light microscopy of Vitamin C Crystals
   - The Seven Most Common Grades for Chemicals and Reagents:
  1. ACS grade meets or exceeds purity standards set by the American Chemical Society (ACS). This grade is acceptable for food, drug, or medicinal use and can be used for ACS applications or for general procedures that require stringent quality specifications and a purity of ≥95%.
  2. Reagent grade is generally equal to ACS grade (≥95%) and is acceptable for food, drug, or medicinal use and is suitable for use in many laboratory and analytical applications.
  3. USP grade meets or exceeds requirements of the United States Pharmacopeia (USP). This grade is acceptable for food, drug, or medicinal use. It is also used for most laboratory purposes, but the USP being followed should always be reviewed prior to beginning to ensure the grade is appropriate for that methodology.
  4. NF grade meets or exceeds requirements of the National Formulary (NF). The USP and the NF (USP– NF) jointly publish a book of public pharmacopeial standards for chemical and biological drug substances, dosage forms, compounded preparations, excipients, medical devices, and dietary supplements. The listings here should be reviewed to determine which would be considered equivalent grades.
  5. Laboratory grade is the most popular grade for use in educational applications, but its exact levels of impurities are unknown. While excellent for teaching and training, it is not pure enough to be offered for food, drug, or medicinal use of any kind.
  6. Purified grade, also called pure or practical grade, meets no official standard; it is not pure enough to be offered for food, drug, or medicinal use of any kind.
  7. Technical grade is used for commercial and industrial purposes; however, like many others, it is not pure enough to be offered for food, drug, or medicinal use of any kind.
      ACS, Reagent, and USP-NF grades are typically equivalent and interchangeable
FIN