Objectives, Tube Lenses, Polarizers, etc
This page documents my plan and tests for objectives, tube lens, filters, etc.  As well as my observations regarding Pixel Shift.
  1. Objectives
  2. Tube Lenses
  3. Condenser
  4. Collimeter
  5. Polarizers
  6. Retardation Plates
  7. Tubes
  8. Pixel Shift
 Objectives

Armenia, 26 Apr 2019
Here are the objectives that  I own  and that  I want .  And things that  I like  and that  I don't like .  All are Infinity Corrected; Plan Achromat (Mitutoyo), Plan (Nikon, AmScope 40X & 60X, Olympus) or Plan Fluor (Amscope 4X); no coverglass (∞/0 or ∞/-); dry (not oil).
 
Regarding Mitutoyo,
"One of the metrology/inspection manufacturers, Mitutoyo, makes some spectacular infinity corrected objectives featuring very long working distances. They are quite large and have an odd thread (M26, but 0.706 mm pitch instead of the BD pitch of 0.75 mm), so are not easily used. However, they make incredible "extreme-macro" lenses."   - Source
 
Regarding sharpness,
"It depends on what you mean by "sharp". Because of its larger aperture, NA 0.42 versus 0.25, the 20X objective will resolve much finer detail on subject. But at rated magnification, the combination of 20X NA 0.42 will be running at effective f/24, while 10X NA 0.25 will be effective f/20. (The formula is Feff=mag/(2*NA).) As a result, the 20X image will be more diffracted and will have less crisp pixel-to-pixel detail than the 10X image.
 
[But,] to do a direct comparison, you could resize either image to match the other, or resize both of them to some other standard like 14X. In any of those cases, the image from the NA 0.42 objective should be significantly sharper than the image from the NA 0.25 objective, after resizing so that both of them show the same FOV on subject."   - Source

Mag. H
a
v
e
Mitutoyo Nikon AmScope Olympus OMAX Leitz Canon Sony
NA Feff WD Price NA Feff WD Price NA Feff WD Price NA WD Price NA WD Price NA WD Price Len WD Price Len WD Price
1X 3         100 300 $750 90 280 $1000
180 240 $1400  
2X 0.055 18 34.0 $935 0.06 17 7.5 $417            
4X 2 0.10 20 30 $183   0.10 18.5 $140        
0.13 8 ? $69 $49
5X 0.14 18 34.0 $705            
0.21 12 25.4 $4,750
10X 2 0.28 18 33.5 $885 0.25 20 10.5 $279 0.35 14? $162 0.25 10.6 $315        
0.42 12 15.0 $8,125
20X 1 0.28 36 30.5 $3,095          
0.42 24 20.0 $2,055 0.40 1.2 $375
32X 0.50 ? $79    
40X 1 0.65 31 0.57 $490 0.65 31 ? $88 0.65 0.6 $575 0.60 2.8 $197      
50X 0.42 60 20.5 $3,425            
0.55 45 13.0 $2,675
0.75 33 5.2 $5,725 0.80 31 1.0 $1,645
60X 1 0.85 35 ? $125          
80X 1   0.90 0.20 $77        
100X 0.55 91 13.0 $4,795          
0.70 71 6.0 $3,495  
0.90 56 1.3 $6,175 0.90 0.7 $462 0.90 ? $199
Key:I own it I want it I like it I don't like it
References:
   - Labeling of Objectives
   - Objective Lenses - a nice overview
Sources:
   - AmScope Infinity Corrected
   - Edmunds: Mitutoyo
   - Edmunds: Olympus
   - SEO: Nikon
My Test Results
Armenia, 26 Apr 2019
To-do
 
 Tube Lens

Lake Placid, 2 May 2019
Here is what I have available to test for use as a tube lens.
Make and Model Focal Length (mm) Specified Price
Working Distance (mm) Pupil Distance (mm)
Canon 100mm Macro 100 n/a n/a $749
Canon 180mm Macro 180 n/a n/a $1,399
Raynox DCR-150 208 210 (EM), 208 (SR) 50 (RO) $62
Sony 90mm Macro 90 n/a n/a $998
Thorlabs ITL200 200 148 (TL), 245 (RO) 70-170 (TL), 75 (RO) $482+$49
Source Source

Lake Placid, 17 Aug 2019
For a sanity check on the results, here is a comparison of MTFs of the Sony 90mm Macro and the Canon 100mm f/2.8L Macro.
 
The measurements are from Lens Rentals More PhotoGeekery: Finite Conjugate MTF Bench Tests for Macro Lenses by Roger Cicala, August 15, 2016.
 
I have overlayed the Canon MTF onto the Sony MTF.  Each plot shows the difference between the Sony and Canon at the various MTF values.  Where the areas are mottled show Canon besting Sony.  Solid areas show Sony besting Canon.  There is some cool symmetry, lending some confidence in the data (?)

My Test Results
Lake Placid, 30 May 2019
Make, Model and
Orientation
Optimum Working Distance (mm)
(measured between sensor and back end of tube lens)
Focussed on the moon
(no objective used)
Focussed on an integrated circuit wafer
(using the Mitutoyo 10X objective)
/ Pupil Distance used
Raynox DCR-150
Raynox DCR-150 Reversed
Thorlabs ITL200
Thorlabs ITL200 Reversed

Images
To-do
References:
- Previous Measurements
      More PhotoGeekery: Finite Conjugate MTF Bench Tests for Macro Lenses by Roger Cicala, August 15, 2016.
- Setting up a tube lens
      Raynox DCR-150 tube assembly with flocking
- Robert O'Toole
      TUBE LENS TEST 2018
      RAYNOX TUBE LENSES
      THORLABS ITL200 TUBE LENS TEST
 Condenser

Lake Placid, 24 May 2019
Here is what I have available to test.
 
Make & Model N/A Aperture Price
Nikon Abbe 1.25 $90 (w/DF & Rheinberg filters)
Olympus Abbe 1.25 $29

Nikon Condenser
Olympus Condenser

My Test Results
Lake Placid, 24 May 2019
To-do
 
 Collimeter

Lake Placid, 24 May 2019
Here is what I have available to test.
 
Make & Model Aperture Price
Leitz $66
Olympus $59

Leitz Collimeter
Olympus Collimeter

My Test Results
Lake Placid, 24 May 2019
To-do
 
 Polarizers

Lake Placid, 24 May 2019
Here is what I have available to test.
 
Source Material Extinction Ratio Thickness (mm) Transmission (Single)(%) Dia (mm) Price (each)
Edmund's Glass 10000:1 2.00 25.0 50.8 $199
Plastic 9000:1 2.20 36 50.8 $31
eBay Plastic 1000:1 0.80 38 45 $7

My Test Results
Armenia, 26 Apr 2019
To-do
 
 Retardation Plates

Lake Placid, 24 May 2019
Here is what I have available to test.
 
Source Material Retardance Type Transmission (%) Dimension (mm) Price
Edmund's Film λ/4 Achromatic Waveplate >90 50.0 x 50.0 $12
λ/2 Multiple Order Waveplate >90 50.0 x 50.0 $12
λ Multiple Order Waveplate >89 50.0 x 50.0 $18

My Test Results
Armenia, 26 Apr 2019
To-do
 
 Tubes

Lake Placid, 5 May 2019
This is a calculation of what combinations of Thorlabs Adjustable Lens Tubes and Stackable Lens Tubes will give me a good range of lengths.  Read the top table left to
right.  So, an SM2L03 paired with an SM2V05 gives the range of Min Len to Max Len as noted.

Here is the combination of tubes, tube lens, filters, condenser and collimeter, light source, and 3D-printed parts that make up my current configurations:
To-do
 
 Pixel Shift

Background
Armenia, 26 Apr 2019
My Test Results
Armenia, 26 Apr 2019